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res judicata final

Supreme Court of India

Forward Construction Co. & Ors. ... vs Prabhat Mandal (Regd.) Andheri & ... on 26 November, 1985

But it is only when the conditions of Explanation VI are satisfied that a decision in the litigation will bind all persons interested in the right litigated and the onus of proving the want of bona fides in respect of the previous litigation is on the party seeking to avoid the decision. The words "public right" have been added in Explanation VI in view of the new s.91 C.P.C. and to prevent multiplicity of litigation in respect of public right. In view of Explanation VI it cannot be disputed that s. 11 applies to public interest litigation as well but it must be proved that the previous litigation was the public interest litigation not by way of a private grievance. It has to be a bonafide litigation in respect of a right which is common and is agitated in common with others.

Supreme Court of India

Narayana Prabhu Venkateswara ... vs Narayan Prabhu Krishna Prabhu & ... on 19 January, 1977

In a partition suit each party claiming that the property is joint, asserts a right and litigates under a title which is common to others who make identical claims. If that very issue is litigated in another suit and decided we do not see why the others making the same claim cannot be held to be claiming a right "in common for themselves and others". Each of them can be deemed, by reason of Explanation VI, to represent all those the nature of whose claims and interests are common or identical. If we were to hold otherwise, it would necessarily mean that there would be two inconsistent decrees. One of the tests in deciding whether the doctrine of res judicata applies to a particular case or not is to determine whether two inconsistent decrees will come into existence if it is not applied.

Supreme Court of India

Sunderabai W/O Devrao Deshpande ... vs Devaji Shankar Deshpande on 3 October, 1952

Estoppel is a rule of evidence and the general rule is enacted in section 115 of the Evidence Act, which lays down that when one person has by his declaration, act or omission caused or permitted another person to believe a thing to be true and to act upon such belief neither he nor his representative shall be allowed in any suit or proceeding between himself and such person or his representative to deny the truth of that thing. This is the rule of estoppel by conduct as distinguished from an estoppel by record which constitutes the bar of 'res judicata'.

"It is true that 'litigating under the same title' h