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In Pickard v. Sears [1848] 2 Ex. 654 Lord Denman said:

The rule of law is clear, that, where one by his words or conduct wilfully causes another to believe in the existence of a certain state of things and induces him to act on that belief, so as to alter his own previous position, the former is concluded from averring against the latter a different state of things as existing at the time.

In Freeman v. Cooke [1848] 2 Ex. 654, Parke, B., pointed out that the rule was founded on previous authorities and was stated more broadly by Lord Denman in Gregg v. Wells Gregg v. Wells (1839) 10 Ad. &. E. 90 thus:

That a party, who negligently or culpably stands by and. allows another to contract on the faith...of a fact which he can contradict cannot afterwards dispute that fact in an action against the person whom he has himself assisted in deceiving.

Supreme Court of India

Gyarsi Rai And Others vs Dhansukh Lal And Others on 18 November, 1964

The doctrine of estoppel embodied in s. 115 of the Evidence Act has been explained by the Judicial Committee in C. D. Sugar Co. v. C. N. Steamship(1) in the following terms "estoppel is a complex legal notion, involving a combination of several essential elements, the statement to be acted upon, action on the faith of it, resuling detriment to the actor." To invoke the doctrine of estoppel three conditions must be satisfied : (1) representation by a person to another, (2) the other shall have acted upon the said representation, and (3) such action shall have been detrimental to the interests of the person to whom the representation has been made. In the instant case it may be said that the first two conditions are satisfied : the appellant represented to the respondents that he was liable to render accounts to them in regard to the net proceeds of the mortgaged properties from the date of the plaint to the date of the preliminary decree, and on the said representation the respondents agreed to the appellant drawing out from the Court about Rs. 35,515 deposited by them. But can it be said that the respondents had in any way acted to their detriment on the basis of the representation made by the appellant ? The respondents had to pay the decretal amount to the appellant if they wanted to get possession of the properties. What they paid was less than what they had to pay under the decree. By paying the said amount they did nothing more than discharging their liability under the decree. The discharge by the respondents of their legal liability under the decree cannot in any sense of the term be described as detrimental to them. Whether the representation was made or not they had to pay that amount and by paying that amount they had secured a benefit in as much as from the date of payment the interest on that amount ceased to run. There is no scope, therefore, in this case to invoke the doctrine of estoppel.

H.B. Basavaraj by LRs. and Anr v. Canara Bank and Ors Civil Appeal No. 233 Of 2003 | 28-10-2009

"The essential element of waiver is that there must be a voluntary and intentional relinquishment of a known right or such conduct as warrants the inference of the relinquishment of such right. It means the forsaking the assertion of a right at the proper opportunity."

In general words, estoppel is a principle applicable when one person induces another or intentionally causes the other person to believe something to be true and to act upon such belief as to change his/her position. In such a case, the former shall be estopped from going back on the word given. The principle of estoppel is, however, only applicable in cases where the other party has changed his position relying upon the representation thereby made.

"An estoppel though a branch of the law of evidence is also capable of being viewed as a substantive rule of law in so far as it helps to create or defeat rights which would not exist and be taken away but for that doctrine."

In S. Shanmugam Pillai v. K. Shanmugam Pillai (AIR 1972 SC 2069), it was observed that there are three classes of estoppels that may arise for consideration; being: (1) that which is embodied in Section 115 of the Evidence Act, (2) election in the strict sense of the term whereby the person electing takes a benefit under the transaction, and (3) ratification i.e. agreeing to abide by the transaction. It might be said that the action of the trust falls under the third category whereby it ratified all actions taken by others and benefiting from the same. Hence, the trust being the sole beneficiary is not only liable for the repayment but is also estopped from denying its liability under the contract.

B.L. Shreedhar v. K.M. Munireddy(dead) & Ors. (2003) 2 SCC 355, estoppel said to be based on the maxim, allegans contraria non est audiendus (a party is not to be heard to allege the contrary) and is that species of presumption juries et de jure (absolute or conclusive or irrebutable presumption), where the fact presumed is taken to be true, not as against all the world, but against a particular party, and that only by reason of some act done; it is in truth a kind of argumentum ad hominem. Estoppel is a complex legal notion, involving a combination of several essential elements, namely, statement to be acted upon, acting on the faith of it, resulting detriment to the actor. Estoppel is often described as a rule of evidence, as indeed it may be so described. But the whole concept is more correctly viewed as a substantive rule of law. Estoppel is different from contract both in its nature and consequences. But the relationship between the parties must also be such that the imputed truth of the statement is a necessary step in the constitution of the cause of action. But the whole case of estoppel fails if the statement is not sufficiently clear and unqualified.

Supreme Court of India

Chhaganlal Keshavlal Mehta vs Patel Narandas Haribhai on 11 December, 1981

The difference between admission and estoppel is a marked one. Admissions being declarations against an interest are good evidence but they are not conclusive and a party is always at liberty to withdraw admissions by proving that they are either mistaken or untrue. But estoppel creates an absolute bar. In this state of the legal position, if the endorsement made by Chimanrai or by his widow, Chhotiba or his daughter Taralaxmibai amounts to an estoppel they or their transferees would be prevented from claiming the property.

It may be pointed out that estoppel deals with questions of facts and not of rights. A man is not estopped from asserting a right which he had said that he will not assert. It is also a well-known principle that there can be no estoppel against a statute. After the death of Motibhai his son Chimanrai succeeded in law.

To bring the case within the scope of estoppel as defined in section ] 15 of the Evidence Act: t I ) there must be a representation by a person or his authorised agent to another in any form a declaration, act or omission; (2) the representation must have been of the existence of a fact and not of promises de futuro or intention which might or might not be enforceable in contract; (3) the representation must have been meant to be relied upon; (4) there must have been belief on the part of the other party in its truth; (5) there must have been action on the faith of that declaration, act or omission, that is to say, the declaration, act or omission must have actually caused another to act on the faith of it, and to alter his former position to his prejudice or detriment; (6) the misrepresentation or conduct or omission must have been the proximate cause of leading the other party to act to his prejudice; (7) the person claiming the benefit of an estoppel must show that he was not aware of the true state of things. If he was aware of the real state of affairs or had means of knowledge, there can be no estoppel; (8) only the person to whom representation was made or for whom it was designed can avail himself of it. A person is entitled to plead estoppel in his own individual character and not as a representative of his assignee.

Supreme Court of India

R.S. Madanappa And Ors vs Chandramma And Anr on 5 March, 1965

The object of estoppel is to prevent fraud and secure justice between the parties by promotion of honesty and good faith. Therefore, where one person makes a misrepresentation to the other about a fact he would not be shut out by the rule of estoppel, if that other person know the true state of facts and must consequently not have been misled by the misrepresentation.

"If a man either in express terms or by conduct makes a representation to another of the existence of a certain state of facts which he intends to be acted upon in a certain way, and it be acted upon in the belief of the existence of such a state of facts, to the damage of him who so believes and acts, the first is estoppel from denying the existence of such a state of facts."

"If a stranger begins to build on my land supposing it to be his own and I (the real owner) perceiving his mistake, abstain from setting him right, and leave him to persevere in his error, a court of equity will not allow me afterwards to. assert my title to the land, on which he has expended money on the supposition, that the land was his own. It considers that when I saw the mistake in which he had fallen, it was my duty to be active and to state his adverse title; and that it would be dishonest in me to remain wilfully passive on such an occasion in order afterwards to profit by the mistake which I might have prevented."

In S. Shanmugam Pillai v. K. Shanmugam Pillai ( AIR 1972 SC 2069) it was observed that there are three classes of estoppels that may arise for consideration in dealing with reversioner's challenge to a widow's alienation. They are (1) that which is embodied in S.115 of the Evidence Act, (2) election in the strict sense of the term whereby the person electing takes a benefit under the transaction, and (3) ratification i.e. agreeing to abide by the transaction. A presumptive reversioner coming under any one of the aforesaid categories is precluded from questioning the transaction, when succession opens and when he becomes the actual reversioner. But if the presumptive reversioner is a minor at the time he has taken a benefit under the transaction, the principle of estoppel will be controlled by another rule governing the law of minors. If after attaining majority he ratifies the transaction and accepts the benefit thereunder, there cannot be any difference in the application of the principle of election. The effect would be the same. It may be that on attaining majority he has the option to disown the transaction and disgorge the benefit or to accept it and adopt it as his own. Whether after attaining majority the quondam minor accepted the benefit or disowned it, is a question to be decided on the facts of each case.

In Provash Chandra Dalui v. Biswanath Banerjee (AIR 1989 SC 1834), it was observed as follows:

"21. The essential element of waiver is that there must be a voluntary and intentional relinquishment of a known right or such conduct as warrants the inference of the relinquishment of such right. It means the forsaking the assertion of a right at the proper opportunity. The first respondent filed suit at the proper opportunity after the land was transferred to him, and no covenant to treat the appellants as Thika tenants could be shown to have run with the land. Waiver is distinct from estoppel in that in waiver the essential element is actual intent to abandon or surrender right, while in estoppel such intent is immaterial. The necessary condition is the detriment of the other party by the conduct of the one estopped. An estoppel may result though the party estopped did not intend to lose any existing right. Thus voluntary choice is the essence of waiver for which there must have existed an opportunity for a choice between the relinquishment and the conferment of the right in question. Nothing of the kind could be proved in this case to estop the first respondent."

In Indira Bai v. Nand Kishore (1990 (4) SCC 668), it was observed as follows:

"Estoppel is a rule of equity flowing out of fairness striking on behaviour deficient in good faith. It operates as a check on spurious conduct by preventing the inducer from taking advantage and assailing forfeiture already accomplished. It is invoked and applied to aid the law in administration of justice. But for it great many injustice may have been perpetrated. Present case is a glaring example of it. True no notice was given by the seller but the trial court and the appellate court concurred that the pre-emptor not only came to know of the sale immediately but he assisted the purchaser-appellant in raising construction which went on for five months. Having thus persuaded, rather mislead, the purchaser by his own conduct that he acquiesced in his ownership he somersaulted to grab the property with constructions by staking his own claim and attempting to unsettle the legal effect of his own conduct by taking recourse to law. To curb and control such unwarranted conduct the courts have extended the broad and paramount considerations of equity, to transactions and assurances, express or implied to avoid injustice."

Supreme Court of India

B.L. Sreedhar & Ors vs K.M. Munireddy (Dead) And Ors on 5 December, 2002

"An estoppel is not a cause of action- it is a rule of evidence which precludes a person from denying the truth of some statement previously made by himself."

If a man either by words or by conduct has intimated that he consents to an act which has been done and that he will not offer any opposition to it, although it could not have been lawfully done without his consent, and he thereby induces others to do that which they otherwise might have abstained from, he cannot question legality of the act he had sanctioned to the prejudice of those who have so given faith to his words or to the fair inference to be drawn from his conduct.

It cannot be doubted that there may be cases in which there is deception by omission, silence may be treated as deception only where there is a duty to speak; in other words as Biglow points out in his book "Biglow on Fraud" (Volume 1 at page 597), ground of liability arises wherever and only where silence can be considered as having an active properly that of misleading.

"An estoppel," says Lord Coke, "is where a man is concluded by his own act or acceptance to say the truth." Mr. Smith, in his note to the Duchess of Kingston's case, characterizes this definition as a little startling but it nevertheless gives a good idea of what it is, by no means easy to include within the limits of a definition. (1 Smith L.C. 760) Though estoppel is described as a mere rule of evidence, it may have the effect of creating substantive rights as against the person estopped. An estoppel, which enables a party as against another party to claim a right of property which in fact he does not possess is described as estoppel by negligence or by conduct or by representation or by holding out ostensible authority.

Estoppel, then, may itself be the foundation of a right as against the person estopped, and indeed, if it were not so, it is difficult to see what protection the principle of estoppel can afford to the person by whom it may be invoked or what disability it can create in the person against whom it operates in cases affecting rights. Where rights are involved estoppel may with equal justification be described both as a rule of evidence and as a rule creating or defeating rights. It would be useful to refer in this connection to the case of Depuru Veeraraghava Reddi v. Depuru Kamalamma, (AIR 1951 Madras 403) where Vishwanatha Sastri, J., observed:

"An estoppel though a branch of the law of evidence is also capable of being viewed as a substantive rule of law in so far as it helps to create or defeat rights which would not exist and be taken away but for that doctrine."

Of course, an estoppel cannot have the effect of conferring upon a person a legal status expressly denied to him by a statute. But where such is not the case a right may be claimed as having come into existence on the basis of estoppel and it is capable of being enforced or defended as against the person precluded from denying it.

In his illustrious book "Law of Estoppel" 6th Edition, Bigelow has noted as follows:

"Situations may arise, indeed, in which a contract should be held an estoppel, as in certain cases where only an inadequate right of action would, if the estoppel were not allowed, exist in favour of the injured party. In such a case the estoppel may sometimes be available to prevent fraud and circuity of action."

In another illustrious book "Estoppels and the Substantive Law" by Arthur Caspersz under title 'Conduct of Indifference or Acquiescence' it has been noted as follows:

"40. It is, however, with reference to the third class of cases that the greatest difficulty has arisen, especially where statements have been made, expressly or by implication, which cannot properly be characterized as representations at all. It must now be regarded as settled that an estoppel may arise as against persons who have not willfully made any misrepresentation, and whose conduct is free from fraud or negligence, but as against whom inferences may reasonably have been drawn upon which others may have been induced to act.

The doctrine of Acquiescence may be stated thus:

"If a person having a right, and seeing another person about to commit, or in the course of committing, an act infringing upon that right, stands by in such a manner as really to induce the person committing the act, and who might otherwise have abstained from it, to believe that he assents to its being committed, he cannot afterwards be heard to complain of the act." (Duke of Leeds v. Earl of Amherst 2 Ph. 117 (123) (1846). This is the proper sense of the term acquiescence, "and in that sense may be defined as acquiescence, under such circumstances as that assent may be reasonably inferred from it, and is no more than an instance of the law of estoppel by words or conduct." (De Bussche v. Alt. L.R. 8 Ch.D. 286 (314). Acquiescence is not a question of fact but of legal inference from facts found. (Lata Beni Ram v. Kundan Lall, L.R. 261 I.A. 58 (1899).

The common case of acquiescence is where a man, who has a charge or incumbrance upon certain property, stands by and allows another to advance money on it or to expend money upon it. Equity considers it to be the duty of such a person to be active and to state his adverse title, and that it would be dishonest in him to remain willfully passive in order to profit by the mistake which he might have prevented. (Ramsden v. Dyson L.R. 1 E & I, Ap. 129(140)(1865).

x x x x x x

42. In such cases the conduct must be such that assent may reasonably be inferred from it. The doctrine of acquiescence has, however, been stated to be founded upon conduct with a knowledge of legal rights, and as stated in some cases appears to imply the existence of fraud on the part of the person whose conduct raises an estoppel. The remarks of the Judicial Committee, however, in Sarat Chunder Dey v. Gopal Chunder Laha, (L.R. 19 I.A. 203) clearly extend the doctrine of estoppel by conduct of acquiescence or indifference to cases where no fraud whatever can be imputed to the person estopped, and where that person may have acted bona fide without being fully aware, either of his legal rights, or of the probable consequences of his conduct. In every case, as already pointed out, the determining element is not the motive or the state of knowledge of the party estopped, but the effect of his representation or conduct as having induced another to act on the faith of such representation or conduct.

Lapse of time and delay are most material when the plaintiff, by his conduct may be regarded as waiving his rights, or where his conduct, though not amounting to a waiver, has placed the other party in a situation in which it would not be reasonable to place him if the remedy were afterwards asserted. When, however, an argument against a relief, otherwise just, is founded upon mere delay not amounting to bar by limitation, the validity of that defence must be tried by principles substantially equitable."

In Snell's Principles of Equity, 27th Edition, Chapter 3, 12 Maxims of Equity have been indicated. Of these maxims principles 5, 6 and 7 are relevant for the purpose of the case in hand. They are as follows:

x x x x "5. He who seeks equity must do equity.

6. He who comes into equity must come with clean hands.

7. Delay defeats equities, or, equity aids the vigilant and not the indolo Vigilantibus, non dormientibus, jura subveniunt."

x x x x x The following passage from the "Law relating to Estoppel by Representation" by Geroge Spencer, Second Edition as indicated in Article 3 is as follows:-

"It will be convenient to begin with a satisfactory definition of estoppel by representation. From a careful scrutiny and collation of the various judicial pronouncements on the subject, of which no single one is, or was perhaps intended to be, quite adequate, and many are incorrect, redundant, or slipshod in expression; the following general statement of the doctrine of estoppel by representation emerges; where one person ("the representor") had made a representation to another person ("the representee") in words or by acts and conduct, or (being under a duty to the representee to speak or act) by silence or inaction, with the intention (actual or presumptive), and with the result, of inducing the representee on the faith of such representation to alter his position to his detriment, the represent in any litigation which may afterwards take place between him and the representee, is estopped, as against the representee, from making, or attempting to establish by evidence, any averment substantially at variance with his former representation, if the represent at the proper time, and in the proper manner, objects thereto."

In "Bhanu Kumar Jain v. Archana Kumar and another" 2005 (2) Mh.L.J. 839, the Apex Court considered the distinction between "issue estoppel" and "res judicata". It is held :

"29. There is a distinction between "issue estoppel" and "res judicata". (See Thoday vs. Thoday. (1964) 1 All ER 341).

30. Res judicata debars a Court from exercising its jurisdiction to determine the lis if it has attained finality between the parties whereas the doctrine issue estoppel is invoked against the party. If such an issue is decided against him, he would be estopped from raising the same in the latter proceeding. The doctrine of res judicata creates a different kind of estoppel viz. Estoppel by accord.

31. In a case of this nature, however, the doctrine of "issue estoppel" as also "cause of ( 33 ) action estoppel" may arise. In Thoday (supra) Lord Diplock held :

"....`cause of action estoppel', is that which prevents a party to an action from asserting or denying, as against the other party, the existence of a particular cause of action, the non-existence or existence of which has been determined by a Court of competent jurisdiction in previous litigation between the same parties. If the cause of action was determined to exist i.e. Judgement was given on it, it is said to bemerged in the judgement....If it was determined not to exist, the unsuccessful plaintiff can no longer assert that it does; he is estopped per rem judicatam.

Supreme Court of India

Commissioner Of Customs, Mumbai vs M/S. Virgo Steels, Bombay & Anr on 4 April, 2002

The next question for our consideration is: can a mandatory requirement of a statute be waived by the party concerned ? In answering this question, we are aided by a catena of judgments of this Court as well as of the Privy Council. We will first refer to the judgment of the Privy Council which has been consistently followed by the Supreme Court in a number of subsequent cases involving similar points. In Vellayan Chettiar v. Government of Province of Madras (AIR 1947 PC 197), the Privy Council held that even though Section 80 C.P.C. is mandatory, still non-issuance of such notice would not render the suit bad in the eye of law because such non-issuance of notice can be waived by the party concerned. In the said judgment, the Privy Council held that the protection provided under Section 80 is a protection given to the person concerned and if in a particular case that person does not require the protection he can lawfully waive his right.

In the case of Dhirendra Nath Gorai and Subal Chandra Shaw and Ors. V. Sudhir Chandra Ghosh and Ors. (1964 (6) SCR 1001), this Court followed the judgment of the Privy Council in Vellayan Chettiar (supra) and held that even though the requirement of Section 35 of the Bengal Money Lenders' Act is mandatory in nature, such mandatory requirement could be waived by the party concerned. On a true construction of Section 35 of that Act, this Court held that the said Section is intended only for the benefit of the judgment-debtor and, therefore, he can waive the right conferred on him under the said Section.

In the case of S. Raghbir Singh Gill v. S. Gurcharan Singh Tohra & Ors. (1980 Supp SCC 53), this Court negatived an argument that the requirement of Section 94 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 cannot be waived. This argument was based on the principle that public policy cannot be waived. Rejecting the said argument, this Court held that the privilege conferred or a right created by a Statute, if it is solely for the benefit of an individual, he can waive it. It also held that where a prohibition enacted is founded on public policy, courts should be slow to apply the doctrine of waiver but if such privilege granted under the Act is for the sole benefit of an individual as is the case under Section 94 of the Representation of the People Act, the person in whose benefit the privilege was enacted has a right to waive it because the very concept of privilege inheres a right to waiver.

In Krishan Lal v. State of J & K (1994 (4) SCC 422), this Court while considering the requirement of furnishing copy of inquiry proceedings under Section 17(5) of the J & K (Government Servants) Prevention of Corruption Act, 1962 held following the judgment in V. Chettiar's case (supra) and D.N. Gorai (supra) that though the requirement mentioned in Section 17(5) of the Act was mandatory, the same can be waived because the requirement of giving a copy of the proceedings of the inquiry mandated by Section 17(5) of the Act is one which is for the benefit of the individual concerned.

In Martin & Harris Ltd. V. 6th Additional Distt. Judge & Ors. (1998 (1) SCC 732), this Court while considering the provision of Section 21(1)(a) first proviso of the U.P. Urban Buildings (Regulation of Letting, Rent and Eviction) Act, 1972 negatived a contention advanced on behalf of the appellant therein that the said provision was for public benefit and could not be waived. It held that it is true that such benefit enacted under the said proviso covered a class of tenants, still the said protection would be available to a tenant only as an individual, hence, it gave the tenant concerned a locus poenitentiae to avail the benefit or not. It also held that the benefit given under the said section was purely personal to the tenant concerned, hence, such a statutory benefit though mandatory, can be waived by the person concerned.

From the ratio laid down by the Privy Council and followed by this Court in the above-cited judgments, it is clear that even though a provision of law is mandatory in its operation if such provision is one which deals with the individual rights of person concerned and is for his benefit, the said person can always waive such a right.

Bearing in mind the above decided principle in law, if we consider the mandatory requirement of issuance of notice under Section 28 of the Act, it will be seen that that requirement is provided by the Statute solely for the benefit of the individual concerned, therefore, he can waive that right. In other words, this Section casts a duty on the Officer to issue notice to the person concerned of the proposed action to be taken. This is not in the nature of a public notice nor any person other than the person against whom the proceedings are initiated has any right for such a notice. Thus, this right of notice being personal to the person concerned, the same can be waived by that person.

If the above position in law is correct, which we think it is, M/s. Virgo Steels, having specifically waived its right for a notice, cannot now be permitted to turn around and contend that the proceedings initiated against them are void for want of notice under Section 28 of the Act, so as to frustrate the statutory duty of the Revenue to demand and collect customs duty which M/s. Virgo Steels had intentionally evaded.

Since the sole ground on which the appeal of M/s. Virgo Steels was allowed by the Tribunal is based on non-issuance of a notice under Section 28 and we having found such a notice was not necessary in the facts and circumstances of the case, the appeal of the Revenue as against M/s. Virgo Steels has to be allowed.

Supreme Court of India

Transmission Corp.Of A.P Ltd. & ... vs Sai R.P.Pvt. Ltd. & Ors on 8 July, 2010

The principle of promissory estoppel, even if, it was applicable as such, the Government can still show that equity lies in favour of the Government and can discharge the heavy burden placed on it. In such circumstances, the principle of promissory estoppel would not be enforced against the Government as it is primarily a principle of equity. Once the ingredients of promissory estoppel are satisfied then it could be enforced against the authorities including the State with very few extra ordinary exceptions to such enforcement. In the United States the doctrine of Promissory Estoppel displayed remarkable vigor and vitality but it is still developing and expanding. In India, the law is more or less settled that where the Government makes a promise knowing or intending that it would be acted upon by the promissory and in fact the promissory has acted in reliance of it, the Government may be held to be bound by such promise. It is a settled canon of law that doctrine of promissory estoppel is not really based on principle of estoppel but is a doctrine evolved by equity in order to prevent injustice. There is no reason why it should be given only a limited application by way of defence. It can also be the basis of a cause of action. Even if we assume that there was a kind of unequivocal promise or representation to the respondents, the reviews have taken place only after the period specified under the guidelines and/or in the PPAs was over. This is a matter which, primarily, falls in the realm of contract and the parties would be governed by the agreements that they have signed. Once these agreements are singed and are enforceable in law then the contractual obligations cannot be frustrated by the aid of promissory estoppel.

38. Following the judgment of this Court in the case of Union of India v. M/s. Indo-Afghan Agencies Ltd. [(1968) 2 SCR 366], this Court in the case of Century Spinning and Manufacturing Company Ltd. v. The Ulhasnagar Municipal Council [(1970) 1 SCC 582] held that if the promise is made in regard to a present or existing fact, the principle of estoppel can be enforced against the Government. But a promise in relation to a future transaction or act may not fall within the ambit of promissory estoppel. This law was further discussed with some elaboration by the Court in the case of Motilal Padampat Sugar Mills. Co. Ltd. v. State of Uttar Pradesh [(1979) 2 SCC 409], where the Court after considering the position of law in England and United States and comparing the same to the Indian Law, laid down the basic concept of promissory estoppel that would determine its enforceability. In the case of Pawan Alloys v. UPSEB [(1997) 7 SCC 251], the Court, though had enforced the principle of promissory estoppel against the Board, but certain basic facts of that case needs to be noticed by us. The appellants in that case had neither expressly nor impliedly stated that it has the power to withdraw the incentives and rebate at a time prior to the expiry of three years for which it was granted. Secondly, none of the private parties had voluntarily or even by remotest choice agreed to give up the benefits given to them by clear representation held out by the Board. As is obvious, the power of the Board to increase the general tariff was accepted, but the incentive of rebate was de horse the tariff and thus, promissory estoppel was enforceable against the Board.

39. Another very important dictum of the Court in this judgment was that the power of the Board to fix general tariff as well as discharge of other related functions was held to be quasi-judicial in character. This power of the Board is exercised under the statute as a power-cum-duty and is independent of granting or declining any rebate. In the present case the order dated 20th June, 2001 was fully accepted by the parties without any reservation. After the lapse of more than reasonable time of their own accord they voluntarily signed the PPA which contained a specific stipulation prohibiting sale of generated power by them to third parties. The agreement also had renewal clause empowering TRANSCO/APTRANSCO/Board to revise the tariff. Thus, the documents executed by these parties and their conduct of acting upon such agreements over a long period, in our view, bind them to the rights and obligations stated in the contract. The parties can hardly deny the facts as they existed at the relevant time, just because it may not be convenient now to adhere to those terms. Conditions of a contract cannot be altered/avoided on presumptions or assumptions or the parties having a second thought that a term of contract may not be beneficial to them at a subsequent stage. They would have to abide by the existing facts, correctness of which, they can hardly deny. Such conduct, would be hit by allegans contraria non est audiendus.

40. Lastly, we may refer to a more recent judgment of this Court. In the case of Kusumam Hotels (P) Ltd. v. Kerala Seb [(2008) 13 SCC 213], where the Court discussed in some elaboration the different judgments of this Court on the subject and then declined to enforce the principle of promissory estoppel as there was no foundational facts and also indicated that the Government can alter, amend or rescind its policy decision in public interest, the Court held as under:

"27. Yet again in U.P. Power Corpn. Ltd. v. Sant Steels & Alloys (P) Ltd., it was held: (SCC p.800, para 27) "27. In this background, in view of various decisions noticed above, it will appear that the Court's approach in the matter of invoking the principle of promissory estoppel depends on the facts of each case. But the general principle that emerges is that once a representation has been made by one party and the other party acts on that representation and makes investment and thereafter the other party resiles, such act cannot be stated to be fair and reasonable.

When the State Government makes a representation and invites the entrepreneurs by showing various benefits for encouraging to make investment by way of industrial development of the backward areas or the hill areas, and thereafter the entrepreneurs on the representations so made bona fide make investment and thereafter if the State Government resiles from such benefits, then it certainly is an act of unfairness and arbitrariness. Consideration of public interest and the fact that there cannot be any estoppel against a statute are exceptions."

xxx xxx xxx

36. The law which emerges from the above discussion is that the doctrine of promissory estoppel would not be applicable as no foundational fact therefor has been laid down in a case of this nature. The State, however, would be entitled to alter, amend or rescind its policy decision. Such a policy decision, if taken in public interest, should be given effect to. In certain situations, it may have an impact from a retrospective effect but the same by itself would not be sufficient to be struck down on the ground of unreasonableness if the source of power is referable to a statute or statutory provisions. In our constitutional scheme, however, the statute and/or any direction issued thereunder must be presumed to be prospective unless the retrospectivity is indicated either expressly or by necessary implication. It is a principle of the rule of law. A presumption can be raised that a statute or statutory rule has prospective operation only."

41. In our country, the law of promissory estoppel has attained certainty. It is only an unambiguous and definite promise, which is otherwise enforceable in law upon which, the parties have acted, comes within the ambit and scope of enforcement of this principle and binding on the parties for their promise and representation. It will be difficult for the Court to hold that the guidelines can take the colour of a definite promise which in the letters of the Central Government itself were proposals to the State Government. Besides that, if for the sake of argument, we treat the State letters/circulars as promise or representations to the private parties like the respondents, even then, they led to the execution of a definite contract between the parties which will purely fall in the domain of contractual law. These contracts specifically provided for review and when reviewed in the year 2001 parties not only accepted the order but executed contracts (PPAs) in furtherance of it. In these circumstances, we are unable to accept the argument that the State or the Regulatory Commission or erstwhile State Electricity Board were bound to allow same tariff and permit third party sales for an indefinite period. To this extent, authorities, in any case, would not be bound by the principle of estoppel.

Supreme Court of India

Sangeetaben Mahendrabhai Patel vs State Of Gujarat & Anr on 23 April, 2012

This Court has time and again explained the principle of issue estoppel in a criminal trial observing that where an issue of fact has been tried by a competent court on an earlier occasion and a finding has been recorded in favour of the accused, such a finding would constitute an estoppel or res judicata against the prosecution, not as a bar to the trial and conviction of the accused for a different or distinct offence, but as precluding the acceptance/reception of evidence to disturb the finding of fact when the accused is tried subsequently for a different offence. This rule is distinct from the doctrine of double jeopardy as it does not prevent the trial of any offence but only precludes the evidence being led to prove a fact in issue as regards which evidence has already been led and a specific finding has been recorded at an earlier criminal trial. Thus, the rule relates only to the admissibility of evidence which is designed to upset a finding of fact recorded by a competent court in a previous trial on a factual issue.